al-Daouk 

An Insight into a family's

Past and Present

introduction

The Daouk family is a well known family stemming from Ras Beirut Lebanon. The family's presence in Lebanon dates back to the 13th century. Originally arriving from the Maghreb, the family escaped Morocco in the late 12th century from Marrakesh to the Levant during the Reconquista inquisition. The immigration came as a consequence of the  heavy influx of refugees from the Iberian Peninsula. Many Maghrebis were discontent with the overpopulation, leading families to leave their lands and relocate in the Mashreq region of Eastern Arabia.

1300: a new PERMANENT home

Arriving to Beirut around 1310, the family quickly integrated into the Beiruti life. The family would then become one of Beirut's prominent families after a truce that would bind them to the 'Seven Families of Beirut' agreement of 1350. The agreement was a written one, which engulfed the houses of: Sinno, Kreidiyyeh, Itani, Doughan, Mneimneh and the Houry family alongside the Daouk family. Although the original agreement has been lost in history, the legacy of this agreement survives until the present day. This is given by the fact that most of Beirut's original families descend  from, or are related to, one or more of the Seven Families.

 The agreement of 1350 allowed the Seven Families to act as a single body to govern Beirut. The Seven Families subsequently signed an agreement with the ruling Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. The agreement conferred that they would administer Beirut's internal affairs and people, while the Mamluks would handle the military aspects within and outside Beirut. The agreement was a mean of protecting Beirut from foreign powers. The agreement would stay enacted throughout the era of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, which spanned around 1250 to 1517, until its downfall at the hands of the Ottoman Empire.

1400: Rooting beirut's municipal council

 In the early 1400's, the Beirutis began to grow in population. The Seven Families along Beirut's noble elite established a local government which would be chosen by the people. The government would have autonomy over anything within the Walls of Beirut. The head of this council would be called the 'chief' referring to what today is a 'president' or 'mayor'. The Seven Families hegemonized the council given their greater size in population, meaning that the authority within Beirut was shared between those of the Seven Families and those who were not part of the initial agreement of 1350. 

1500:  Beirut and Mount Lebanon

After 1517, Beirut became under Ottoman rule. Beirut was not critically affected by this turbulent change given the religious diversity among its people, who had a large Muslim population, similar to their Ottoman occupiers. The agreement of 1350 would become obsolete during this era. Yet, most of the subsequent mayors of Beirut would be Beirutis. However their powers were greatly mitigated making them subordinate to their Ottoman governors, the Walis.

 

 

1600: the Emirate of Mount Lebanon

 The 1600's saw the rise of the Shihab Dynasty in Mount Lebanon. Their military prominence would prove uneasy to the Beirutis who had no armed force to protect them. Beirut's governance would eventually deteriorate due to the presence of an equally recognized authority in Mount Lebanon. The Beirutis, Ma'ans and Shihabis at that period of time had little disputes over sectarian and demographic affairs, but the military imbalance was worrisome.

The council of Beirut made an agreement with the dynasties of Mount Lebanon, decreeing that Beirut would remain neutral irrespective of sectarian, demographic and political conflicts between them and the Ottomans. The rise of Emir Fakhreddine II in the 1600's would flare hostility between Mount Lebanon and the Sultan. An imminent war would subsequently threaten the very existence of Beirut and Mount Lebanon.

In 1623 war broke out between Emir Fakhreddine and the Ottomans resulting in a chain of decisive victories for Fakhreddine. His victories in the Bekaa over Mustefa Pasha would positively impress the Sultan, who then spared Mount Lebanon. Fakhreddine's prominence was short lived. He would face crushing defeats in the anti-Lebanon mountain chain later on, which led to his execution in 1635. Mount Lebanon was  then heavily sanctioned by the Ottomans in the remaining years of the 17th century, affecting the supply of meat and cattle to Beirut. 

1700: Political Reconciliation

 The initial years of the 18th century proved to be very turbulent. Beirut faced economic decline and political rifts with the Ottomans'. The Daouk family were able to supply themselves with quantities of meat from Mount Lebanon, allowing parts of the family to flourish in wealth.

The Emirate of Mount Lebanon reconciled under Haydar al-Shihab who managed to eliminate all his rivals paving the way for the Sultan to place him and his fore-coming descendants as the administrators of Mount Lebanon. He engaged in diplomatic marriages with various rival dynasties. This maintained prosperity and unity in Mount Lebanon for the next century. A notable number of Beirutis engaged in the Emir's diplomatic marriage integration plan.

1800: Flourishing in the metal industry

The 19th century witnessed turning points in the history of Beirut. Beirut by then had reemerged as a maritime hub for the Levant. The city began developing workshops and forging metal. The Daouk family assembled a few furnaces somewhere on Hamra Street. The family owned a strip of land that spanned from the Pigeon Rocks until the conjunction of Hamra Street and Qoreitem.

Their initial manufacturing of metal soon developed into manufacturing special metals and rare diamonds that were sold to noble Beirutis and people abroad  the vilayet. This eventually dragged the family into the gold market. Muhammad Ahmad Bey al-Daouk was among the first family members to engage in trading gold. One of the most notable members of the late 1800's was Omar Muhammad Bey al-Daouk. Omar flourished in wealth at an early age, becoming a great merchant and politician. His contribution to Beirut with his mass wealth earned him the title 'Bey'.  

Another honorable mention is Mohamed Khalil al-Daouk who came out as a prominent figure in the late 1800's. In 1885, he began retailing basic stationary in Beirut, however the economic boom of Beirut exponentially increased demand for pulp and paper. Mohamed Khalil quickly transformed his business into one that could mass produce paper, meeting the demands of the Beirutis. This would make him a tycoon in the pulp and paper industry. 

Mohamed Khalil's company remains to this day as one of the major players in the Lebanon pulp and paper industry. The company is by far one of the oldest spanning over 130 years of paper production. 

 

1900: Diversification

The family significantly grew during the 20th century. Many were able to educate their children abroad Beirut in institutes within Mount Lebanon, Europe and the Americas. Omar was also a key figure in the early period of this era. This time, it was his political career which was noteworthy. His greatest contributions were reconciling the divided de-facto governments of Beirut, driving the Ottoman regime outside of Lebanon peacefully and establishing the short lived Arab State of Beirut after World War I.

The wealth of the family allowed it to monopolize various markets in Beirut. Much of the family's wealth was invested into Beirut's industrial sector, into manufacturing rare metals. Other members funded the Makassed Philanthropic Islamic Association of Beirut and promoted the subsidization of education among Beirutis and villages in Mount Lebanon. In 1935, the al-Nahar newspaper company was supplied paper on a five-year credit by Zaki Mohamad al-Daouk who was now the director of the Mohamed Khalil al-Daouk company. This would remain as an honorable testimony for the family till this day. 

Ahmad Muhammad al-Daouk was the family's key figure during the period of Lebanon's Independence. In 1941, he served as the Prime Minister of Greater Lebanon under President Alfred Naqqache. His term helped lay the grounds for the Lebanese independence. His sacrifice for this cause came at the price of stepping down from his constitutional authorities in 1942 to weaken France's presence in Greater Lebanon. The Republic of Lebanon would soon emerge as a sovereign nation.

By the early 1950's the family had provided Lebanon two ambassadors, for Spain and France. Ahmad al-Daouk would return as Prime Minister in May 1960, following President Fuad Chehab's dissolving of parliament. He formed an interim government to halt the political rift of 1960. He would then reallocate seats within Lebanon's parliament to restore political balance between Lebanon's political Right wing and Left wing.

2000: Onto the future

Much of the original members of the family remain in Lebanon today, the eldest being Chaaban Maaruf al-Daouk at the age of 95. However, many have immigrated to countries abroad. Yet, the legacy of the family's core values has not perished. Muhammad Omar al-Daouk was a notable person during the early 2000's for his philanthropic and religious contributions to the United Arab Emirates.

Mohamad Amine al-Daouk carries on the legacy of heading the Makassed Philanthropic Islamic Association of Beirut in Lebanon. Others such as Walid al-Daouk have emerged paramount in the Lebanese banking sector, heading BLC Bank and Fransabank. In 2011 he engaged in politics, serving as Lebanon's information minister under Prime Minister Najib Mikati for four years.

In 2012 the Al Daouk Organization was founded as a way to gather and preserve the family's heritage and history putting it all in one place. The organization dedicates its work to its ancestors who played an influential role in establishing Lebanon's modern sovreignty. 

Beyond aldaouk.org:

Izzat Daouk